Cave maps are highly detailed, specialized maps that allow spelunkers, cavers, and speleologists to safely navigate, explore, and study complex cave systems. Learning how to properly read, interpret, and understand cave maps takes time and practice but is an essential skill for any cave enthusiast. This comprehensive guide will provide everything you need to know to start mastering the art and science of cave cartography and map reading.
What Are Cave Maps and Why Are They Important?
Cave maps provide an overhead view of a cave system and are used by cavers to plan routes, estimate distances, avoid getting lost, and safely navigate while underground. They indicate the layout of passages, chambers, vertical shafts, levels, and important cave features using standard cave mapping symbols.
Cave maps allow cavers to visualize in 2D the complex 3D structures found in caves. The varying elevations, slopes, pits, chimneys, crawlways and maze-like intersections are flattened onto the map to depict the overall system. Accurate and detailed maps are vital for safe caving. Cavers always rely on a good map rather than memory when exploring underground. As the old saying goes, “If you don’t use a cave map, you’re just lost and don’t know it yet!”
Cave maps serve several key functions:
- Allow systematic exploration and data gathering
- Prevent disorientation and aid navigation
- Record the locations of cave resources and formations
- Identify geological structures and hydrological features
- Depict orientation and configuration of cave passages
- Provide data to analyze cave patterns and development
- Help cave rescue and emergency response teams
- Facilitate scientific study and conservation efforts
The Evolution of Cave Mapping
Early cave maps from the 1600s were simplistic outlines of major passages and chambers. Map symbology, accuracy, and detail increased over time as cavers surveyed deeper and more complex caves. Modern cave maps contain a wealth of data on geometry, geology, hydrology and cave resources.
Developments like the Brunton compass, flexible plastic scales, Disto laser rangefinders, and cave mapping software have revolutionized cave surveying and cartography. Computer-assisted mapping produces highly accurate and detailed cave maps. Modern digital mapping databases contain cave maps with passage details down to a resolution of a few centimeters!
Types of Cave Maps
There are several specialized types and styles of cave maps:
- Plan Maps – The most common type showing a 2D overhead view of cave passages and features using symbols.
- Extended Elevation Maps – Provide a side view of cave vertical structures rather than just a plan view.
- Projection Maps – Show 3D caves by using angled project lines to map floors, walls and ceilings in profile.
- Unrolled Elevation Maps – Display the full traverse of a single cave passage from entrance to end to depict its vertical profile.
- Perspectives – Illustrate short 3D passage sections or chambers in detail. May include cross-sections.
- Photo Overlays – Layer cave photos onto plan maps to enhance detail.
- Shaded Relief – Use graded color bands to indicate slopes and contours for improved 3D visualization.
- Restricted/Confidential – Contain sensitive information and are shared only with qualified cavers.
- Tourist Maps – Simplified maps of show caves for visitor navigation and interpretation.
Key Components of a Cave Map
Though cave maps appear complex, they share some common components and conventions you need to recognize:
Provides name and location specifics like county, state, cave system, etc. This identifies the mapped area.
Map Symbols Legend
A key explaining the symbols used for walls, rocks, water, slopes, pits, and other features. Memorizing these is the first step in map reading.
Almost always aligned to magnetic north. The compass rose icon shows map orientation.
Shows the map scale ratio and allows size estimation. Large caves may have maps at different scales.
Small markings indicate specific points in the cave where measurements were taken. Connecting them traces the route.
Measured distances, inclination angles, azimuth bearings and station elevations are recorded.
Height, width, cross-sections and profiles of passages at key points provide size data.
Indicate elevations and gradients. Close contours represent steep slopes. They show vertical pits and climbs.
The locations of features like fault lines and fragile formations may be marked.
The presence and direction of flow of underground streams and bodies of water is shown.
Levels and Vertical Connections
Caves contain multiple stacked levels connected by climbs, chimneys and pits. Cross-sections help visualize the vertical structure.
Modern maps increasingly incorporate perspective views, shading, photos and other rendering techniques for enhanced visualization.
Reading and Understanding Cave Maps
Developing the ability to properly interpret cave maps takes time and practice. Apply these techniques:
Learn the Map Symbols
Memorize the common cave map symbols for walls, water, squeezes, slopes, pits, and other features. Grasp the visual shorthand used.
Note the Orientation
Check the direction of magnetic north. Cave maps are oriented as if you were entering the cave entrance.
Follow the Route
Start from the known entrance and follow the sequence of stations through the map. Understand the overall layout.
Picture the 3D Structures
Mentally construct a 3D image of the chambers and passages from the 2D symbols. Visualize moving through the mapped areas.
Watch for Vertical Connections
Look for narrow cracks, chimneys, concealed climbs and pits connecting multiple levels vertically.
Match Map to Surroundings
Frequently match visible cave features to those marked on the map. Correlate map to reality.
Check Compass Frequently
Take regular compass bearings when moving through cave passages to confirm your position.
Visualize the side-view cross-sections at squeeze points to understand how they fit together in 3D.
Think Levels, Levels, Levels
Caves have many stacked levels. Keep track of your current level and how they connect.
Tips for New Cave Map Readers
For those new to cave cartography, keep these map reading tips in mind:
- Learn symbols – Memorize the common symbols. This is the cave mapping language.
- Start simple – Begin with maps of small, single-level caves before tackling huge systems.
- Bring the map caving – Always take the map with you for reference in the cave rather than relying on memory.
- Take notes – Record details like broken formations to improve map accuracy.
- Orient frequently – Check the map orientation often using your compass and turn it to align with cave directions.
- Correlate features – Match visible cave features to those marked on the map.
- Think 3D – Mentally visualize complex 3D spaces from the 2D lines.
- Watch levels – Note map indications of vertical connections between different levels.
- Be patient – Cave map reading is a skill that takes time and practice to master.
Common Symbols Used on Cave Maps
Cave maps use standard cartographic symbols as a visual shorthand to efficiently represent the many types of underground geological structures, features, obstacles and landmarks. Here are some of the most frequently used cave map symbols that you must recognize:
- Dotted line – Cave wall. May have tick marks to indicate wall clarity.
- Solid line – Cave floor. Floors are mapped in plan view.
- Line with periodic ticks – Cave ceiling edge. Ticks indicate the clarity.
- Passage/tunnel – Clear walking passage in cave.
- Large open area – Spacious chamber or room enclosed by cave.
- Arrow – Downward or upward slope direction. Shows gradient.
- Zigzag line – Very steeply sloping or vertical passage.
- Crosshatched area – Standing water like pools and lakes.
- Wiggly line with arrow – Direction of water flow, rivers and streams.
- Pebbly fill – Breakdown, rocks, boulders, flowstone.
- Dotted fill – Dense area of stalagmites, columns, and flowstone.
- Circles – Individual columns, stalagmites, straws, etc.
- Two arrows – Pit, shaft, drop or vertical chimney. Shows traverse direction.
- Diagonal lines – Climb or chimney up or down between levels.
- Sine wave – Low, tight crawlway or squeeze through passage.
- Multi-level maps – Show stacked levels in different colors with connections marked.
Key Elements to Note When Reading Cave Maps
When reviewing a cave map, pay close attention to these key elements:
- Title and location – Note cave name and geographic specifics.
- Orientation – Check direction of magnetic north on compass rose.
- Scale – Note ratio of map to reality. Watch for zoomed insets.
- Dimensions – Height, width and cross-sections at key points.
- Contour lines – Show slopes, pits and climbs. Follow these through 3D.
- Elevations – Marked elevations of floors, ceilings and passages.
- Verticality – Pits, cracks, chimneys and climbs connecting levels.
- Passage clarity – Dotted or solid walls indicate passage definition.
- Survey stations – Small markers where measurements were taken.
- Level connections – How levels tie together vertically via climbs, pits and cracks.
- Water – Flow direction, rivers, lakes. May rise or flood passages.
- Geology – Fault lines, walls, mineral deposits, cave resources.
Using Cave Maps to Navigate Underground
The primary purpose of cave maps is to allow safe navigation and prevent cavers from becoming lost:
- Correlate map to cave – Match visible features to the map as you progress into the system.
- Orient frequently – Adjust map to keep passage directions aligned with your compass.
- Turn the map, not yourself – Rotate the map to maintain orientation, don’t twist your body.
- Note your route – Trace your traversal through the cave onto the map.
- Watch for endpoints – Follow passages to terminus endpoints marked on the map.
- Visualize 3D – Build a mental picture of the full 3D structure around you.
- Check stations – Mark off survey stations on the map as you pass them.
- Consult map at junctions – Check legitimate possible passages at every intersection.
- Measure distances – Pace or tape distances to match map lengths.
Common Cave Mapping Techniques and Methods
There are several core techniques and methods that skilled cave mappers use to accurately capture complex 3D cave structures on 2D maps:
- Baseline-and-tie – A baseline is set near the entrance and interior stations are sequentially tied to it with azimuth and inclination measurements.
- Loop closures – Closing survey loops verifies accuracy and reduces cumulative errors.
- Redundant survey – Overlapping data from multiple teams provides redundancy to correct anomalies.
- Surface surveying – Recording entrance locations via GPS, transit and external reference points enhances accuracy.
- Precision instruments – Highly accurate digital instruments like distometers facilitate data gathering.
- Ambient environment – Airflow, humidity, temperature and other factors are recorded to characterize caves.
- Dimensional data – Precise measurement of height, width, and cross-sections creates detailed profiles.
- Sketching – Detailed freehand sketches of passages, chambers and features provide insights photographs may miss.
- Annotated photography – Photos taken underground are tagged with cave locations for later reference.
- Digital data plotting – Survey data is plotted with specialized mapping software like Compass, Walls and others.
- Artistic rendering – Perspective views, shading, illumination create more realistic representations.
Levels of Cave Map Complexity
Cave maps range in complexity from simple to incredibly detailed. Progress gradually when learning map reading:
- Basic single-level maps – Contain a single main level without complex interconnections. Easiest to interpret.
- Multi-level maps – Show a cave system with multiple stacked levels connected by vertical passages. More challenging.
- Extended depth maps – Represent caves with extensive depth and numerous descending levels. Require 3D thinking.
- Campsite maps – Provide expanded maps of cave basecamps and bivouac areas for planning purposes.
- Sump maps – specialized for mapping underwater cave passages and flooded areas.
- Maze cave maps – Complex maps of caves with maze-like features and dense intersections. Very difficult to read.
- Interactive 3D maps – Modern computer-generated immersive maps allowing real-time rotation, zoom, and virtual traversal through cave data. Great for visualization.
Online Resources for Cave Mapping and Map Reading
The internet offers a wealth of information to help build your cave mapping knowledge and skills:
- CaveMaps.org – Searchable database of free cave maps to view or download for practice.
- NSS Geocaching – Decontamination procedures for geocaching and cave exploration from the National Speleological Society.
- Cave Diggers – Articles on cave exploration, gear, techniques, and navigation tips.
- CaveInfo.com – Caving forum covering all things underground. Discuss cave mapping.
- Atlas Obscura – Helpful introduction to interpreting basic cave maps.
- Kartoza.com – Cave mapping with thermal imaging cameras.
- Caves.org – 3D surveying, drafting, and cartography for complex multi-level caves.
Joining a Cave Survey Project as a Beginner
If you wish to gain firsthand cave mapping experience, join an existing survey project as an apprentice:
- Contact local grottoes – Join caving groups and let them know of your interest in learning cave mapping.
- Be willing to start with menial tasks like moving equipment. Pay attention and ask questions.
- Know and follow proper caving ethics and conservation principles so as not to endanger caves.
- Study the methods and instruments used like distometers, clinometers, notebooks, etc.
- Ask the survey lead if you can learn to record instrument readings and draft simple map sections.
- Request opportunities to help with surface surveys of sinkholes and entrances using GPS, transits, etc.
- Volunteer for sketching cross-sections and annotating maps with additional details noticed.
- Suggest ideas but avoid criticizing methods. Experienced mappers dislike pushy beginners.
- Ask other grotto members for tips on improving your cave mapping skills.
Reading and mastering cave maps takes time and practice but allows cavers to safely traverse and study complex underground geologies and spaces. Start by learning common map symbols and basic techniques. Interpret simple single level maps before tackling complex 3D systems with interconnecting levels. Use the map frequently when underground along with a compass to maintain orientation. Correlate cave features to corresponding map indications. Think levels, levels, levels! With diligence, cave maps that once appeared indecipherable will become intuitive navigational tools leading to exciting new discoveries in the world beneath your feet.